TitleStanding in Misunderstanding: Analyzing Boundary Objects’ Effectiveness in Innovation Communities
Publication Type04. Published Conference Proceedings
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMarheineke, M., Habicht H., & Möslein K. M.
Conference NameR&D Management Conference 2014
Date Published06/2014
Conference LocationFraunhofer IAO, Stuttgart, Germany
Keywordsboundary management, Boundary objects, communication performance, virtual innovation communities
Abstract

In this paper we investigate objects that span boundaries to foster mutual understanding in virtual innovation communities. In particular, we study virtual whiteboards (which comprise a mix of boundary objects) in the early phases of the innovation process. Information systems provide new boundary objects for community members which support their non-canonical, collaborative work required for igniting new ideas ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER acd49d23-4506-4233-89d8-462b81948a22 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& Duguid, 1991a; Wenger, 1998).Our study follows the two-sided perspective of socio-technical systems theory ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER d22744a5-f9c6-494c-8561-545ea48f80ea 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(Bostrom & Heinen, 1977). From a social perspective, extant literature provides coverage of the roles of boundary objects for collaborative innovation ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 516a76bb-d4c5-4898-bf50-0b154a0184ed 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(Carlile, 2002a; Tushman, 1977). From a technical perspective, research investigates efficient communication through media, predicting that most efficient communication is achieved when the object’s synchronicity fits the communication requirements ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER d5e4b3e0-c4f1-4013-8db4-68b9640967b4 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(Dennis, Fuller, & Valacich, 2008). By combining both perspectives, we will analyze the performance of multiple boundary objects (as part of a virtual whiteboard) with respect to the particular communication requirements of each step of the innovation process. Performance is assessed as the degree to which communication boundaries (in the sense of ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 8eb418ee-843f-4b48-89fd-a5f63cb4dcd0 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Carlile, 2004) are overcome and mutual understanding is achieved.First, we assume that boundary objects which convey information most effectively perform high in the idea generation phase. Second, we assume boundary objects that converge on meaning most effectively to perform high in the development and evaluation of ideas.Our empirical analysis is based on a multiple case study analysis ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 1fd8652d-a0a8-40e0-880f-60b75c3c9373 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(Yin, 2009) of (virtual) innovation communities. Data has been collected from users of a virtual whiteboard who participated in collaborative innovation. The data comprises of information on the use of boundary objects in workshops with members of the innovation community. We conclude with managerial and practical recommendations on how to design boundary objects for (virtual) innovation communities to overcome communications boundaries.